Yona Nadelman

Yona Nadelman, born Yona Kunstler, was five years old when Nazi Germany invaded her native city, Krakow, Poland. Soon after the invasion, her family fled eastward to Lutsk, in the Soviet sector. While her parents continued towards Siberia, Yona was left in the care of her grandparents, who later secured her false identity papers. Yona’s uncle, a major seed merchant and distributor, had connections and arranged for Yona and two of her siblings to be hidden on the farm of a retired professor and his family in Klecsa Dolna.

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Robert Geminder

Bob Geminder B&W

Bob was born in 1935 in Wroclaw, Poland. Upon the outbreak of war, Bob’s family was forcibly relocated to Stanislawow, a city then under Soviet occupation. The family’s fate worsened in 1941 when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Stanislawow fell under heavy bombing, during which time his father suffered a fatal heart attack. Bob’s mother sent his brother and him to live with a family near Krakow who were paid with the ownership of their family’s apartment building. Bob’s brother was soon sent back to their family, but Bob stayed for another three months where he was neglected and underfed. Bob, his mother, his step-father, and his brother eventually made their way to Warsaw, where after the Uprising, they were sent to Auschwitz.

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Gabriella Karin

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Before the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, Gabriella Karin had a normal life, living with her parents and her grandmother. Her parents owned a local delicatessen store in Bratislava. In 1938, after hearing about the violence of Kristallnacht, Gabriella’s mother wanted to emigrate, but the family did not have the financial means to do so.  Shortly after the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939, Slovakia was granted independence under a Nazi approved government. During this time, Gabriella’s mother began working for the underground.

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Avraham Perlmutter

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Avraham Perlmutter was born in Vienna, Austria in August 1927 and raised in an Orthodox family. As a child before the war, he enjoyed going to school and playing soccer.  On March 13, 1938 his life was changed as Hitler announced the Anschluss with Austria. After that, he and his family began to feel the rising antisemitism more sharply and decided to try and emigrate. By January of 1939 they were desperate to escape the Nazis and so Avraham and his sister were sent to the unoccupied Netherlands to live with an aunt. After going through four refugee camps and recovering from diphtheria, he was released to relatives in December 1939.

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Eva Nathanson

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Eva Nathanson was born in 1941 in Budapest, Hungary. When she was a young child, the Hungarian Nyilas, members of the pro-Nazi Arrow Cross Party, arrested most of her family. She was very young, but remembers that this took place at her grandfather’s house. This was the last time she saw most of her family. A family friend rescued Eva from this deportation, and provided her and her mother with shelter. For the rest of the duration of the war, Eva was hidden in various homes. She remembers her fear of soldiers, weapons and small spaces, all of which still resonate with her.

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David Lenga

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David Lenga was born in 1927 in Lodz, Poland. After the Nazi invasion in 1939, he and his family were confined to a ghetto in the suburb of Strykow, where they spent the first two years of the war. David’s family was later forced to move into the second largest ghetto in Poland, the Lodz Ghetto. During a deportation from the ghetto, David was separated from his mother and younger brother and managed to remain in the ghetto.

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Lea Radziner

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Lea Radziner (nee Sanowsky) was born November 10th, 1938 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, after the infamous Kristallnacht pogrom that took place throughout Germany and Austria. Lea’s childhood was able to remain relatively normal until a few weeks after the birth of her younger sister, Ester when the Nazis invaded and conquered the Netherlands in May of 1940. During an antisemitic raid, Lea’s father was arrested suddenly one day along with 425 Jewish men and deported to the Mauthausen Concentration Camp in Austria where he later perished.

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Peter Daniels

Peter Daniels

Peter Daniels was born in Berlin, Germany on July 8th, 1936. His parents, both Jewish, were together only briefly: Peter’s father fled to Shanghai with his family in 1938, and Peter was raised by his single working mother. At age 4, Peter was no longer allowed to attend his kindergarten because of his Jewish status. As it was too hard to find someone to look after him, because the law prevented non-Jews from working for Jewish people, his mother was forced to leave him alone at home all day while she worked. Since Peter’s maternal grandmother was born Christian, his mother was protected legally as a Mischling. They were able to stay in Berlin until 1943 when all Mischling were arrested and deported.

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Dana Schwartz

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Dana was four years old when Nazi Germany invaded Lviv, the USSR, former Lwow, Poland. The only child to university-educated parents, Dana remembers spending a day in the park with her nanny on the day the Germans invaded.  In November 1941, after four months of German occupation, a ghetto was set up in the former Jewish district of the city and the Jewish population from the city districts was forced into this restricted housing area, which was very crowded and had poor sanitation conditions. The family was in the ghetto until the first deportations began in April 1942, which forced the family of three to hide throughout the ghetto. Dana’s father was able to secure a way for Dana and her mother to escape the Ghetto.

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Henry Slucki

Henry Slucki

Henry Slucki was born in Paris, France on July 12, 1934. While his parents came from religious homes in Warsaw, Poland, they made new lives for themselves in France where they were active in secular Yiddish activities. After the Nazis came to power in Germany and war seemed imminent, Henry and his family lived in constant fear. Frequent air raids, which required everyone to find shelter and wear gas masks, left everyone in a state of terror. Henry watched the city prepare for war as sandbags were piled around the city, windows were covered with tape to prevent shattered glass from causing injury, and food was rationed and sparse. Henry and his fellow Parisians stood on sidewalks as the German army marched into Paris and by the next day swastikas were all around the city.

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